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Please choose www. Your GarlandScience. The student resources previously accessed via GarlandScience. Resources to the following titles can be found at www. From its title to the The field of popular music production is overwhelmingly male dominated. Here, Paula Wolfe discusses gendered notions of creativity and examines the significant under-representation of women in studio production.

Wolfe brings an invaluable perspective as both a working artist-producer and as a To date, there has been a significant gap in work on the social history of music in Britain from to the present day. The three volumes of Live Music in Britain address this gap and do so through a unique prism—that of live music. The key theme of the books is the changing nature of the live Status Quo were one of the most successful, influential and innovative bands of the s. During the first half of the decade, they wrote, recorded and performed a stream of inventive and highly complex rock compositions, developed 12 bar forms and techniques in new and fascinating ways, and Leigh H.

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Adam Bradley. Greg Thomas. Victoria Johnson. Mark Zobel. Mozart on the Stage, Cambridge University Press, Sander Van Maas. Julia Sutton and Rachelle Palnick Tsachor, eds. Barney Hoskyns. Albert R. James Leve. Kander and Ebb, Yale University Press, Helen Rees, ed.

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Sergey Prokofiev, transl. Anthony Phillips. John Deathridge. Michael H. Kristine M. Jewel A. Erich Hoeprich. Marjorie W. George E. Barbara L. Stephanie D. Philip Furia and Michael Lasser. Richard Kramer. David Gramit editor. Mina Yang. Arts, Inc. Olivia A. The instrumental rock and roll of performers such as Duane Eddy , Link Wray and the Ventures was developed by Dick Dale , who added distinctive "wet" reverb , rapid alternate picking, and Middle Eastern and Mexican influences.

He produced the regional hit " Let's Go Trippin' " in and launched the surf music craze, following up with songs like " Misirlou " Surf music achieved its greatest commercial success as vocal music, particularly the work of the Beach Boys , formed in in Southern California.

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Their early albums included both instrumental surf rock among them covers of music by Dick Dale and vocal songs, drawing on rock and roll and doo wop and the close harmonies of vocal pop acts like the Four Freshmen. They drew on a wide range of American influences including s rock and roll, soul, rhythm and blues, and surf music, [69] initially reinterpreting standard American tunes and playing for dancers. Bands like the Animals from Newcastle and Them from Belfast , [70] and particularly those from London like the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds , were much more directly influenced by rhythm and blues and later blues music.

Beat bands tended towards "bouncy, irresistible melodies", while early British blues acts tended towards less sexually innocent, more aggressive songs, often adopting an anti-establishment stance. There was, however, particularly in the early stages, considerable musical crossover between the two tendencies. During the week of 4 April , the Beatles held twelve positions on the Billboard Hot singles chart, including the entire top five.

The Beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed into the US charts by numerous British bands. The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll, opening the door for subsequent British and Irish performers to achieve international success. Garage rock was a raw form of rock music, particularly prevalent in North America in the mids and so called because of the perception that it was rehearsed in the suburban family garage. There were also regional variations in many parts of the country with flourishing scenes particularly in California and Texas.

The style had been evolving from regional scenes as early as The British Invasion greatly influenced garage bands, providing them with a national audience, leading many often surf or hot rod groups to adopt a British influence, and encouraging many more groups to form. It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around Particularly significant was the release of Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton Beano album , considered one of the seminal British blues recordings and the sound of which was much emulated in both Britain and the United States.

Many of the songs on their first three albums, and occasionally later in their careers, were expansions on traditional blues songs. In America, blues rock had been pioneered in the early s by guitarist Lonnie Mack , [99] but the genre began to take off in the mids as acts developed a sound similar to British blues musicians. Geils Band and Jimi Hendrix with his power trios , the Jimi Hendrix Experience which included two British members, and was founded in Britain , and Band of Gypsys , whose guitar virtuosity and showmanship would be among the most emulated of the decade.

Early blues rock bands often emulated jazz, playing long, involved improvisations, which would later be a major element of progressive rock. From about bands like Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience had moved away from purely blues-based music into psychedelia. By the s, the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement, utilising traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style, usually on acoustic instruments.

Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals' " House of the Rising Sun " , which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation [] and the Beatles " I'm a Loser " , arguably the first Beatles song to be influenced directly by Dylan. Tambourine Man " which topped the charts in These acts directly influenced British performers like Donovan and Fairport Convention. Folk-rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period —68, before many acts moved off in a variety of directions, including Dylan and the Byrds, who began to develop country rock.

Psychedelic music's LSD -inspired vibe began in the folk scene. Progressive rock, a term sometimes used interchangeably with art rock , moved beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types, and forms. Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy and science fiction. Greater commercial success was enjoyed by Pink Floyd, who also moved away from psychedelia after the departure of Syd Barrett in , with The Dark Side of the Moon , seen as a masterpiece of the genre, becoming one of the best-selling albums of all time.

The instrumental strand of the genre resulted in albums like Mike Oldfield 's Tubular Bells , the first record, and worldwide hit, for the Virgin Records label, which became a mainstay of the genre. In the late s, jazz-rock emerged as a distinct subgenre out of the blues-rock, psychedelic, and progressive rock scenes, mixing the power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational elements of jazz.

AllMusic states that the term jazz-rock "may refer to the loudest, wildest, most electrified fusion bands from the jazz camp, but most often it describes performers coming from the rock side of the equation. In Britain the subgenre of blues rock, and many of its leading figures, like Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce of the Eric Clapton -fronted band Cream , had emerged from the British jazz scene. Often highlighted as the first true jazz-rock recording is the only album by the relatively obscure New York-based the Free Spirits with Out of Sight and Sound British acts to emerge in the same period from the blues scene, to make use of the tonal and improvisational aspects of jazz, included Nucleus [] and the Graham Bond and John Mayall spin-off Colosseum.

From the psychedelic rock and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine, who, it has been suggested, produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation, with Miles Davis , particularly influenced by the work of Hendrix, incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the album Bitches Brew It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists, including Herbie Hancock , Chick Corea and Weather Report. Reflecting on developments in rock music at the start of the s, Robert Christgau later wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies :.

The decade is, of course, an arbitrary schema itself—time doesn't just execute a neat turn toward the future every ten years. But like a lot of artificial concepts—money, say—the category does take on a reality of its own once people figure out how to put it to work. In popular music, embracing the '70s meant both an elitist withdrawal from the messy concert and counterculture scene and a profiteering pursuit of the lowest common denominator in FM radio and album rock. Rock saw greater commodification during this decade, turning into a multibillion-dollar industry and doubling its market while, as Christgau noted, suffering a significant "loss of cultural prestige".

In the '70s the powerful took over, as rock industrialists capitalized on the national mood to reduce potent music to an often reactionary species of entertainment—and to transmute rock's popular base from the audience to market. Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from what some saw as the excesses of the psychedelic scene, to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences, particularly country and folk music, leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock.

The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound, largely derived from blues rock , but incorporating elements of boogie , soul, and country in the early s. Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends. The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolan , who had renamed his folk duo to T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the s.

Often cited as the moment of inception is his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in December wearing glitter, to perform what would be his first number 1 single " Ride a White Swan ". From the late s it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies.

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From the late s the term "heavy metal" began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity, first as an adjective and by the early s as a noun. Led Zeppelin added elements of fantasy to their riff laden blues-rock, Deep Purple brought in symphonic and medieval interests from their progressive rock phase and Black Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmony , helping to produce a "darker" sound. Rock, mostly the heavy metal genre, has been criticized by some Christian leaders, who have condemned it as immoral, anti-Christian and even demonic.

Since the s Christian rock performers have gained mainstream success, including figures such as the American gospel-to-pop crossover artist Amy Grant and the British singer Cliff Richard. D and Collective Soul. Punk rock was developed between and in the United States and the United Kingdom. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream s rock. Punk embraces a DIY do it yourself ethic , with many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels.

Punk quickly, though briefly, became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. By the beginning of the s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi!

Although punk rock was a significant social and musical phenomenon, it achieved less in the way of record sales being distributed by small specialty labels such as Stiff Records , [] or American radio airplay as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and album-oriented rock.

If hardcore most directly pursued the stripped down aesthetic of punk, and new wave came to represent its commercial wing, post-punk emerged in the later s and early s as its more artistic and challenging side. The first wave of British post-punk included Gang of Four , Siouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Division , who placed less emphasis on art than their US counterparts and more on the dark emotional qualities of their music. The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early s, including the Fall , the Pop Group , the Mekons , Echo and the Bunnymen and the Teardrop Explodes , tended to move away from dark sonic landscapes.

American working-class oriented heartland rock, characterized by a straightforward musical style, and a concern with the lives of ordinary, blue-collar American people, developed in the second half of the s. The term heartland rock was first used to describe Midwestern arena rock groups like Kansas , REO Speedwagon and Styx, but which came to be associated with a more socially concerned form of roots rock more directly influenced by folk, country and rock and roll.

Exemplified by the commercial success of singer songwriters Bruce Springsteen , Bob Seger , and Tom Petty , along with less widely known acts such as Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes and Joe Grushecky and the Houserockers , it was partly a reaction to post-industrial urban decline in the East and Mid-West, often dwelling on issues of social disintegration and isolation, beside a form of good-time rock and roll revivalism. Heartland rock faded away as a recognized genre by the early s, as rock music in general, and blue-collar and white working class themes in particular, lost influence with younger audiences, and as heartland's artists turned to more personal works.

Newer artists whose music would perhaps have been labeled heartland rock had it been released in the s or s, such as Missouri's Bottle Rockets and Illinois' Uncle Tupelo , often find themselves labeled alt-country. The term alternative rock was coined in the early s to describe rock artists who did not fit into the mainstream genres of the time. Bands dubbed "alternative" had no unified style, but were all seen as distinct from mainstream music. Alternative bands were linked by their collective debt to punk rock, through hardcore, New Wave or the post-punk movements.

Few of these early bands achieved mainstream success, although exceptions to this rule include R. Despite a general lack of spectacular album sales, the original alternative rock bands exerted a considerable influence on the generation of musicians who came of age in the s and ended up breaking through to mainstream success in the s.

Styles of alternative rock in the U. Disaffected by commercialized and highly produced pop and rock in the mids, bands in Washington state particularly in the Seattle area formed a new style of rock which sharply contrasted with the mainstream music of the time. Bands such as Green River , Soundgarden , Melvins and Skin Yard pioneered the genre, with Mudhoney becoming the most successful by the end of the decade.

Grunge remained largely a local phenomenon until , when Nirvana 's album Nevermind became a huge success, containing the anthemic song " Smells Like Teen Spirit ". During and , other grunge albums such as Pearl Jam 's Ten , Soundgarden's Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains ' Dirt , along with the Temple of the Dog album featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, became among the top-selling albums.

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Britpop emerged from the British alternative rock scene of the early s and was characterised by bands particularly influenced by British guitar music of the s and s. The term post-grunge was coined for the generation of bands that followed the emergence into the mainstream and subsequent hiatus of the Seattle grunge bands. Post-grunge bands emulated their attitudes and music, but with a more radio-friendly commercially oriented sound.

Some post-grunge bands, like Candlebox , were from Seattle, but the subgenre was marked by a broadening of the geographical base of grunge, with bands like Los Angeles' Audioslave , and Georgia's Collective Soul and beyond the US to Australia's Silverchair and Britain's Bush , who all cemented post-grunge as one of the most commercially viable subgenres of the late s. The origins of s pop punk can be seen in the more song-oriented bands of the s punk movement like Buzzcocks and the Clash , commercially successful new wave acts such as the Jam and the Undertones , and the more hardcore-influenced elements of alternative rock in the s.

A second wave of pop punk was spearheaded by Blink , with their breakthrough album Enema of the State , followed by bands such as Good Charlotte , Simple Plan and Sum 41 , who made use of humour in their videos and had a more radio-friendly tone to their music, while retaining the speed, some of the attitude and even the look of s punk. In the s the terms indie rock and alternative rock were used interchangeably. By the end of the s many recognisable subgenres, most with their origins in the late s alternative movement, were included under the umbrella of indie.

Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D. Black Emperor and Quickspace. Alternative metal emerged from the hardcore scene of alternative rock in the US in the later s, but gained a wider audience after grunge broke into the mainstream in the early s. Hip hop had gained attention from rock acts in the early s, including The Clash with " The Magnificent Seven " and Blondie with " Rapture " In , Faith No More broke into the mainstream with their single " Epic ", often seen as the first truly successful combination of heavy metal with rap. In , nu metal reached its peak with albums like Staind's Break the Cycle , P.

From about , as dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia, and Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it. Post-Britpop bands have been seen as presenting the image of the rock star as an ordinary person and their increasingly melodic music was criticised for being bland or derivative. Post-hardcore developed in the US, particularly in the Chicago and Washington, DC areas, in the early to mids, with bands that were inspired by the do-it-yourself ethics and guitar-heavy music of hardcore punk, but influenced by post-punk, adopting longer song formats, more complex musical structures and sometimes more melodic vocal styles.

Emo also emerged from the hardcore scene in s Washington, D. In the early s, a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock, emerged into the mainstream. They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock, post-punk or new wave revival. In the s, as computer technology became more accessible and music software advanced, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer.

Different subgenres of rock were adopted by, and became central to, the identity of a large number of sub-cultures. In the s and s, respectively, British youths adopted the Teddy Boy and Rocker subcultures, which revolved around US rock and roll. When an international rock culture developed, it supplanted cinema as the major sources of fashion influence. Rock has been credited with changing attitudes to race by opening up African-American culture to white audiences; but at the same time, rock has been accused of appropriating and exploiting that culture.

Since its early development rock music has been associated with rebellion against social and political norms, most obviously in early rock and roll's rejection of an adult-dominated culture, the counterculture's rejection of consumerism and conformity and punk's rejection of all forms of social convention, [] however, it can also be seen as providing a means of commercial exploitation of such ideas and of diverting youth away from political action.

Professional women instrumentalists are uncommon in rock genres such as heavy metal. According to Schaap and Berkers, "playing in a band is largely a male homosocial activity, that is, learning to play in a band is largely a peer-based In popular music, there has been a gendered "distinction between public male and private female participation" in music. Philip Auslander says that "Although there were many women in rock by the late s, most performed only as singers, a traditionally feminine position in popular music".

Though some women played instruments in American all-female garage rock bands , none of these bands achieved more than regional success. So they "did not provide viable templates for women's on-going participation in rock". An all-female band is a musical group in genres such as rock and blues which is exclusively composed of female musicians.

This is distinct from a girl group , in which the female members are solely vocalists, though this terminology is not universally followed. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Rock music Wikipedia open wikipedia design. For the original s style of rock music, see Rock and roll.

For other uses, see Rock music disambiguation. Rock and roll rockabilly blues electric blues folk country rhythm and blues soul jazz.


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